Life and consciousness in the world
For thousands of years, centuries, humanity has observed only The Sun, Moon, planets, and certain stars. Many of the celestial lights, like the rest of the world, seemed to them immutable. But even in those early times, there were philosophers who believed that everything in the world would develop. Scientists who put forward the first cosmological predictions (XVIII century) tried to explain how the solar system was able to form in the course of the development of cosmic matter. In the XX century, the idea of evolution spread all over the world.
Recalling the limitations of our knowledge of the world, the famous astronomer X. Shepley (1885-1972) said that humanity has three main problems to answer in the future. They ask: What is the world? How is its structure? Why does he live?
When we ask these questions about this life, we cannot fully answer any of them. What is life? How is it created? Why does it live (how did it come about)? In general, interest in the problems of life has attracted and continues to attract the most famous thinkers of the world. In particular, Aristotle, Plato, Einstein, Bohr, Crick, Bernal, etc.
Although astronomical science has made great strides in the theory of the origin and development of celestial bodies, there are still many unknown questions about the origin of life and consciousness and the explanation of its development. The idea that intelligent life should spread not only on our planet, but also on many other worlds was debatable long ago, when the science of astronomy itself was not formed. In the sixth century BC, a philosopher named Anaximander from the city of Miletus argued that life comes from Sea oil and undergoes further evolution. He can be said to be the founder of the idea of self-destruction of life.
There are various theories that answer the questions asked. According to X. Shepley's theory:
· life can only develop on planets;
· only single stars, not a double, multiple star system, can have stable planets;
· only a small proportion of individual stars can pass through the heads of evolution, forming a system of planets;
· life can only develop on planets whose orbits are circular or close to it. After all, in order for life to exist on the surface of planets, some constant temperature is required;
· life can only develop on planets lying at the appropriate distance from the star. After all, the temperature on its surface should be rarefied (acceptable) ;
· life needs water, so the planet on which life develops must be large enough to maintain its atmosphere and hydrosphere for a long time;
· the atmosphere and hydrosphere should not contain toxic substances harmful to life.
Considering the probability of meeting each of these conditions, X. Shepley came to the conclusion that on one of the millions of planets there are favorable conditions for the development of life and satisfy these conditions. That is, there may be life on a hundred thousand planets in our galaxy.
What is consciousness? According to the assumptions of some scientists, human consciousness is synonymous with human language. According to the latter, since consciousness is one of the cognitive properties of people, the development of consciousness can reach varying degrees, and it has a disadvantage and success. And according to the third opinion, consciousness is a closed branch of human development.
An effective way to search for a conscious life is to study radio signals. It is not surprising that they are sent by intelligent beings living on other planets. One day, radio telescopes installed on Earth or on the moon can detect incoming radio signals without errors, open space radio communications. At this point, we will know that there are creatures that we cannot meet ourselves.
But nothing compares to what a person sees with the naked eye and does with his hands. In the next few decades, a person can visit the surface of other planets or its satellites himself and study it and even master it. The era of Human Space Flight began in the XX century, in particular, the first cosmonaut flew around the Earth, the first cosmonaut woman flew into space. On the surface of the moon, the first people set foot.
On April 12, 1961, Yuri Gagarin flew around the world from the Kazakh space station Baikonur. The first thing he said after returning to earth was: "I am a resident of this planet."
On May 5, 1961, the American Shepherd rose above the atmosphere. Three months later, John Glenn made 3 circumnavigation of the Earth. On March 18, 1965, Leonov went into outer space for the first time. On July 20, 1969, American cosmonaut Neil Armstrong made his first impression on the surface of the Moon. On July 15, 1975, American and Soviet cosmonauts shook hands for the first time in space. At the moment, huge orbital ships are flying in orbit around the Earth. Intercontinental space exploration crews work there.
Astrophysicists of Kazakhstan also conduct extensive research, from the optical properties of the atmosphere of the Earth and planets to the physical properties of stars and interstellar objects, from the theory of dynamic properties and construction of a very distant star system to the practice in space. The more we know about space, the greater the number of unknowns. Future young people who study space face the problem of answering new questions: — will our world expand indefinitely? — is there a world beyond our own?" - Can such questions be asked in the world by a conscious being other than us?!
1st year master's student of Kazakh National University named after Al-Farabi
Professor of Kazakh National University named after Al-Farabi
Introductory Astronomy & Astrophysics — 4th. — Saunders College Publishing. — ISBN 978-0-03-006228-5.
Tegmark, Max (May 2003). "Parallel Universes". Scientific American 288: 40–51. arXiv:astro-ph/0302131. Bibcode 2003SciAm.288e..40T. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0503-40. PMID 12701329.