PHILOSOPHICAL VIEWS OF FARABI
Abunasyr started studying very early. He received his initial education in his native city of Otrar, then went to Khorasan. Later, the center of Arab culture went to Baghdad to supplement its knowledge. Zerek Abunasir, who is very passionate about science, being a Muslim, can not even learn from the infidels. He has mastered many areas of Science and has achieved great success. Farabi carefully laid the philosophical and logical cornerstone of Science, established the order of study and teaching of science, tried to identify the subject and distinguish the content of each of them. He conducted complex research on music, made great discoveries in mathematics, left a lot of works on astronomy, enriched physics with new ideas, wrote works on important branches of natural science, such as medicine, chemistry, mineralogy, and analyzed advanced and hellish principles in the opinions of early scholars.
Farabi's socio-philosophical and scientific views on Natural Science are the result of the development of cultural, philosophical and scientific thought in the countries of the near and Middle East in the Middle Ages. Farabi's scientific and philosophical views and orientations were formed in very difficult political, social and economic conditions. The new state-Ket — Arab Caliphate, created as a result of a long policy of conquest, not only added lands, countries, territories, but also created a new mixture (syncretic) of different cultures united by the ideology of Islam, which rose to the status of the state religion. In the IX-X centuries, the development of political, philosophical thought took place in the context of this tense ideological struggle, struggle of various currents and complexes, which was the embodiment of class and religious contradictions.
He supports the idea that in the footsteps of Aristotle, God is only the first cause — the “first impulse” - that creates and drives the world, and then nature (matter) has entered the path of development independently of God by its own law. Farabi believes that the truth is one, but it can be viewed from different angles, from different levels, so it is possible to draw different alternative conclusions about it. His philosophical views can only be correctly understood in a specific historical situation, in terms of its features and originality, than in relation to a particular era. In this era, the system of materialistic philosophy was not openly formed. Therefore, the development of philosophical thought in the Middle Ages took on a religious-Theo-logical character, glorifying God. Therefore, the philosophical teaching of Farabi is an idealistic teaching, guided mainly by the principle that the world was created by one God.
· Researchers of Al-Farabi's philosophy, having thoroughly analyzed his treatises in this area, highlight three main points in the philosophical heritage of Farabi: the recognition of the eternity of the world, determinism — the principle of research, that is, the disclosure of the mystery of causality-science — the source of knowledge; the doctrine of the mind, which denies the indelibility of the human soul. The doctrine of the mind is included in the category of the greatest achievements of Farabi in philosophy. The concept of reason here was considered in a broad, universal sense and served as a basis for its cosmology. In the philosophical system of Farabi, much attention is paid to matter. He recognizes that the world under the moon really exists, that it is in unity with the world above the moon, that is, with the celestial world.
· When studying and studying the problem of cognition, Farabi relies on the achievements of Natural Science of his time and uses his extensive knowledge in mathematics, astronomy, medicine, physiology, music theory and other fields. Here he is guided by the doctrine of the mind, which gives the theory of knowledge a rational character.
· The main goal of Farabi's teaching on cognition is to increase the role of science, individualize, divide the activities of philosophy and religion, and most importantly, to develop and develop scientific methods of cognition (experimental — theoretical method, mathematics of knowledge about nature) in which he participated.
· Problems of logic occupy a large place in the scientific and philosophical creative activity of Farabi. Logic requires a system of reasoning and absolute proof of judgments, which is why Farabi values it as the only way to find and justify the truth. Logically, it divides knowledge into two parts: the initial, expressed in the form of axioms and prerequisites, or the first, and the derivative, The Conclusion, which is derived from them as a consequence of the generalization of thought.
Farabi, following in the footsteps of Aristotle, Al-Kindi, achieved great success in all branches of philosophy and science, taking Kalam. He wrote about 150 large-scale works in various fields of science, especially in philosophy. The vast majority of his philosophical works are devoted to the study of the heritage of Greek thinkers, especially Aristotle.
1st year master's student of Kazakh National University named after Al-Farabi
Professor of Kazakh National University named after Al-Farabi
A. Kobzhov. Al-Farabi, Almaty, 1971.
Al-Farabi. Philosophical treatises, Almaty, 1973.