How Nomads Came From Nomadic Lifestyle to Civilization
The first printed newspaper published in 1605 in Antwerp, the name of the newspaper was attractive which was called ‘Relation’. May be by calling that as relation they wanted civil people keep informed about things which were doing in goverment, anyway I found the name of the newpaper very logic.
Meanwhile, in XVII century the people who had been living in Central Asia still have nomadian lifestyle and may be this’s why they stayed far away from civilization. This nomadian lifestyle of people had ended by twentieth century when there was appesred s few amount of educated people that had tried to enlight the majority that has no literacy at that time. The problem with literacy has caused by a lack of education system that actually was not existed at all in there, but I want you make sure about what we mean by literacy it’s education system which is not related with any religous otherwise there were places where were taught children to that kind of things(etchics).
So, the first newspaper in territories of Central Asia was published in 1870 in Tashkent which is now the capital of Uzbekistan. However the newspaper was used to spread ideas and policy of Tsarist Russia. The main content of articles and whole was under control of people who worked for exploiting system. By the way the newspaper was called ‘Turkistan Ualayatı’ to refer to its territory. The edition had been published two times in a week in kazakh and uzbek languages. After have done 12 years of publishing the press organ was closed for several reasons which were not explained at all. Then after 6 years had come out the second publication ‘Dala Ualayatı’ that was also used for the same purposes as first one. But that was no end of the press. In early years of 20th century there in Steppes appeared several editions that changed the societes’ views and some behaviours that they had for many centuries, and the most important thing that was archieved is they changed their lifestyles into nomadian to settled one.
I want to introduce you some editions, especially the ones which had more effect on people. Actually there were not so much because the people eho worked as editors were the same. I know that you’re well informed and have enough acknowledge how the mass media tools can influence to a society when there are people that had been manipulating by power and religious. To see this, I’d like to make a brief digression into hidtory of the Kazakh printed press. İt was mentioned above that the first two editions that had been published at last decades of ninetieth century. We can say that that editions were the progenitors of the Kazakhstani press. Then later, especially after the first revolution that took place between 1905 and 1907 years in Russian İmpire, there other editions appeared such as ‘Serke’ and ‘Kazak newspaper’ which were closed after having done just one publications at the same yaer of appearance. So after that editions closure, in 1911 two more two editions came out.
The first one is the newspaper ‘Kazakhstan’ and the magazine ‘Ayqap’. These editions in comparison with other early published editions could served for longer time and had much mıre effect on the development of the public opinion and to the formation of literary language. However, the society was mentally hungry, that wasn’t enough, they needed a different seal that could Express the interestd of the whole society and lead the people to education, culture and the freedom.
The newspaper under the calling for colonial authorities name ‘Qazaq’ came out in 1913.
The appearance of this edition was a bright phenomenon in the life of the kazakhs. The newspaper had its purpose as to illuminate people with useful informations from various fields of science, art and technology and familiarize population with the cultural political and economic life of Russia, western countries and other states od the World. On initative of this newspaper long cherised dreams of people came true, schools were opened, creating educaton system was archieved, scholarships were established, small credit partnerships arose and the exchange of thoughts on different issues developed. But at the 1918 it was closed by soviet power in the person of the first kazakh communist bolshevik Alibi Zhangeldin. They confiscated all properties of the edition.
Even all editions were closed, all properties were taken but there shined out consciousness, which was aimed by minority for many years.
If you’d thought or wondered why these editions’ name called ‘Kazak’ here is why, the reason of that is till that time kazakhs were called as kaisak or kirgiz. It was widely used among that researchers which were researching the territory of Central Asia in between XVII-XIX centruies. To save the true name of the whole nation and its language was caused to call the edition’s name as ‘kazakh’.