Translation method using the note taking system
Әл-Фараби атындағы ҚазҰУ профессоры, доцент Жанатаев Данат Жанатайұлы
Әл-Фараби атындағы ҚазҰУ магистранты Кудайбергенова Зульфия
The method of using the system of records in sequential translation plays an important role. It is based on fixing on paper the memory reference points selected as a result of semantic analysis.
Such records are effective if they are made in the most economical ways, representing a single system. The system of records of already selected semantic reference points consists of an abbreviated letter record, symbols and their vertical arrangement. It is based on the semantic analysis of the utterance.
Abbreviated letter entry. The translator, in the process of semantic analysis of the utterance, selects semantic reference points from the perceived speech flow. Some of them he designates with words, which he writes down in letters. As a rule, a translator cannot afford to write unabridged words consisting of more than four or five letters. With abbreviated letter writing, the most important thing is to determine which letters from the written words will not prevent you from reading these words.
It is quite clear that any first letter of any word should be written as a source code sign that determines the direction of perception.
The letters in their combinations are independent, and writing the first letter narrows the choice of the next one. Writing the same two adjacent letters makes it even easier to find the third, etc. Widespread abbreviations
-deputy.(deputy), pom. (assistant), beginning.(chief), fin.(financial) , etc. - are proof of this. Vowel letters are most painlessly thrown out of the word.
Often they save not only the first letters, but also the endings. In inflectional synthetic languages (Russian, German), the end of a word contains a lot of grammatical information, some of which also carries a significant semantic load (for example, the number of nouns). All this suggests the need to write down the vowels at the beginning and at the end of the word. Avoiding writing vowels in the middle of a word reduces the text by 24% — a perfectly acceptable reduction, given the redundancy of the language.
The word given in the context is also understood with its more economical spelling. Therefore, the presence of even a meager context allows you to further shorten the letter entry. So, for example, nouns carry enough semantic and grammatical information that the adjectives preceding them are recognized even with a more significant reduction, for example, "rbch" class, "trdv" people," nc " liberation.The refusal to write vowels in words consisting of four or less letters is impractical. The fewer letters in a word, the greater the semantic load they carry, so throwing out vowels in short words can lead to errors in reproduction.
So, with a letter reduction in a sequential translation, the vowels in the middle of the word, one of the double consonants, and the endings of most adjectives in the defined word are reduced without compromising understanding.
Another variation of the system of records in sequential translation is verticalism. When decoding records, the translator, running through the sequence of characters and abbreviated words, must also be directly aware of the sentences, since it is the sentence that is characterized by relative completeness as a carrier of information, transmitting judgments. One of the main advantages of the vertical arrangement of records is a clear selection of the sentence by a fixed position of its borders. It is equally important to convey the syntactic relations that exist in the sentence and between the sentences by means of the vertical arrangement of the entries.
The main means of expressing syntactic relations in a sentence are: word form, service words, word order. Both word forms and service words are given a very modest place in the records due to the need to maintain the principle of economy. It is most convenient to show the word order by means of a vertical arrangement. But this can be done if we take as a basis the direct word order: a common means of expressing syntactic relations for analytical languages.
The direct word order, in which the grammatical probability of word alternation turns into a grammatical regularity, assumes that the subject group will be written in the first place, and the predicate group will be written below, with some deviation to the right.
One of the most important conditions for verticalism is to write the subject group in the first place (i.e. from the left edge of the paper), which shows the beginning of a new sentence.
The need for transformation does not arise very often, since in Russian texts about 70% of sentences have a direct word order, and in German and English almost all sentences with a direct word order. The transformation is especially common in long sentences, which often turn into two sentences. Sometimes the process of reinterpretation of long sentences ends with the selection of the subject from the beginning of the sentence.
The vertical arrangement of the entries does not necessarily convey the original scheme of the sentence, it can also represent the scheme of the perceived sentence in a transformed form, since verticalism is always in the first place the group of the subject, and in the second place the group of the predicate according to the scheme, but which the translator interprets the perceived statement. The subject group refers to all words (except the predicate) that are subordinate to the first main member of the sentence (the subject) together with itself. A predicate group is a predicate with all the words in its subordinate position.
The secondary members of a sentence, with the exception of the agreed definitions, are placed immediately to the right of the word to which they refer. If several members of a sentence belong to the same word, they are written one under the other (column), regardless of whether they are homogeneous or not.
The symbol for the designation of a particular concept is chosen by the translator himself, only in this case it will really be a reference point of memory for him.