New time philosophy
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New time philosophy

Danat Zhanatayev, Associate Professor of Al-Farabi Kazakh National University

Ainura Kobzhanova, 1st year master's student of Al-Farabi Kazakh National University

     The era of New Time, which began in the 17th century, replaced the Renaissance. At this time, humanity made a huge leap forward in its development. Under the influence of breakthrough discoveries that expanded ideas about nature and the human mind, church tenets began to be questioned for the first time. A new trend of philosophical thought developed. The goals and objectives of philosophers were to comprehend and explain the features of the modern world.

     The philosophy of modern times is a period of Western thought in the 17th and 18th centuries, characterized by the desire to learn about the world through experience and thinking.

It is customary to distinguish the following stages in the development of philosophy:

  • European philosophy of the early modern times (1600-1688);
  • European and North American philosophy of the Enlightenment (1688-1789);
  • German classical philosophy (1770 - mid-19th century).

Ideas of philosophy of modern times

     The decisive influence on the formation of the philosophy of modern times was exerted by long and long voyages by sea. Expansion of geographical boundaries, acquaintance with other peoples and other life order gave rise to hundreds of questions to which answers had to be found. All this gave a huge impetus to the development of philosophy and science, which began to see the world in a completely different light.

     After acquaintance with other civilizations and peoples living outside the state structure, the problem arose of the origin of the state and the justification of its legitimacy. The former theory of the divine nature of state power and its inviolability was replaced by the theory of the contract concluded between society and power. This agreement defined the transition from the "natural stage" of society to the "state" one. This point of view on the civilization process led to the emergence and widespread dissemination of the idea of ​​evolution and the principles of historicism.

     Science was no longer based on the discoveries and statements of the authors of previous centuries. Nature was cognized by an experimental method. Scientists began to study the world not just for the sake of curiosity, but in order to apply new achievements in practice. The changes also affected the attitude to religious dogmas; the human mind was placed above them. The attitude towards the authority of the church became skeptical, philosophers sought to remove the state and education from under the influence of the church. The mind and its limitless possibilities were declared the center of the universe.

The Results of the Philosophy of the New Time

     The progressive ideas of the thinkers of the New Time laid the foundation for modern scientific knowledge and continue to influence modern discoveries and theories. Among the main results that were achieved by the philosophers of that period, one can single out:

  •  creation of methods of jurisprudence;
  • formation of the basis for the protection of human freedom and human rights;
  • the rise of capitalism;
  • scientific and technological revolution;
  • the formation of an experimental and mathematical worldview.